documentclass{article} usepackage{parskip} usepackage{booktabs}

usepackage{lmodern} usepackage{textcomp} usepackage[LGR,T1]{fontenc}

% UTF8 input encoding for pdfTeX or LuaTeX in 8-bit compatibility mode: % (XeTeX in compatibility mode would require xetex-inputenc.sty, which is not % not at CTAN but on https://github.com/wspr/xetex-inputenc) usepackage[utf8]{luainputenc}

usepackage[pdfencoding=auto,colorlinks=true]{hyperref} usepackage{bookmark} % hyperrefs PU encoding supports Greek LICR macros DeclareTextCommand{ensuregreek}{PU}[1]{#1}

usepackage[normalize-symbols, % comment option out to test error reporting

keep-semicolon%

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]{textalpha}

begin{document}

title{The emph{textalpha} package} author{Günter Milde} maketitle

abstract{noindent The emph{textalpha} package enables the use of Greek characters in text independent of font encoding or TeX engine. Input is possible via text commands (verb|textalpha| ldots verb|textOmega|) or Unicode literalsfootnote{% Requires emph{href{http://www.ctan.org/pkg/greek-inputenc}{greek-inputenc}} or XeTeX/LuaTeX.}. } tableofcontents

section{Usage}

Load this package in the preamble of your document with begin{verbatim}

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usepackage{textalpha}

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end{verbatim} eventually with options texttt{normalize-symbols} and/or texttt{keep-semicolon} .

If emph{textalpha} is loaded after the setup of Unicode fonts with the href{http://www.ctan.org/pkg/fontspec}{emph{fontspec}} package under LuaTeX and XeTeX, it provides a compatible interface for Greek in text mode.

See the source of this document url{textalpha-doc.tex} for a setup and usage example, the literate source of the package href{textalpha.sty.html}{textalpha.sty} for the implementation, and href{greek-euenc-doc.pdf}{greek-euenc-doc.pdf} for emph{Font setup for Greek with XeTeX/LuaTeX}.

subsection{option texttt{normalize-symbols}}

Mathematical notation uses variant shapes of some Greek letters as additional symbols. There are separate code points for the symbol variants in Unicode but not in the LGR font encoding used for Greek in 8-bit TeX. TeX supports some of the variant shape symbols in mathematical mode ($theta|vartheta, phi|varphi, pi|varpi, rho|varrho, epsilon|varepsilon$).

The variations have no syntactic meaning in Greek text and text fonts may use the variant shapes in place of the “regular” ones as a stylistic choice. However, some Greek texts in Unicode encoding use these GREEK … SYMBOL characters in place of the corresponding GREEK LETTER … characters.

The texttt{normalize-symbols} option merges letters and symbols to Greek letters. This way, text copied from external sources can be compiled without errors even if it contains GREEK SYMBOL characters in place of GREEK LETTERS: begin{quote}

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This text uses both variants for beta (β|ϐ), theta (θ|ϑ), phi (φ|ϕ), pi (π|ϖ), kappa (κ|ϰ), rho (ρ|ϱ), Theta (Θ|ϴ), and epsilon (ε|ϵ) in the LaTeX source.

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end{quote}

textbf{Attention}: Do not use this option in cases where the distinction between the symbol variants may be important (e.g. in a mathematical or scientific context). Try the emph{alphabeta} package with the respective characters in math mode or use XeTeX/LuaTeX with Unicode fonts in these cases.

This option is ignored with Unicode fonts.

subsection{texttt{keep-semicolon}}

LGR is no ``standard font encoding”. Latin characters and some other ASCII symbols are mapped to Greek ``equivalents” if LGR is the active font encoding. (See href{http://mirrors.ctan.org/macros/latex/contrib/babel-contrib/greek/usage.pdf}{usage.pdf} for a description of this Latin-Greek transliteration.)

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Inline literal start-string without end-string.

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Special care is required with the question mark characters: begin{itemize}

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item The LGR font encoding uses the Latin question mark as input for the

emph{erotimatiko} and maps the semicolon to a middle dot (emph{ano teleia}).

item The Unicode standard provides the code point 037E GREEK QUESTION MARK

but says character 003B SEMICOLON and not 037E is the preferred character for a `Greek question mark’ (erotimatiko),

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end{itemize} As a result, only the deprecated character 037E GREEK QUESTION MARK works with both, Xe/LuaTeX and 8-bit TeX.

The verb|textsemicolon| command inserts an emph{erotimatiko} in LGR and a semicolon else (i.e. always a character that looks like a semicolon): begin{quote}

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Latin (T1) atextsemicolon{} b, Greek (LGR) ensuregreek{atextsemicolon{} b}

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end{quote}

With the texttt{keep-semicolon} option, character 003B SEMICOLON can be used for the emph{erotimatiko} also with LGR encoded fonts:

begin{center} begin{tabular}{lll}

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Latin (T1) & Greek (LGR) & question mark character \ midrule Τί φήις; & ensuregreek{Τί φήις;} & 037E GREEK QUESTION MARK \ Τί φήις; & ensuregreek{Τί φήις;} & 003B SEMICOLON \ Τί φήις? & ensuregreek{Τί φήις?} & 003F QUESTION MARK \

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end{tabular} end{center}

This option is ignored with Unicode fonts.

section{Limitations label{sec:limitations}}

Because the internal font encoding switch interferes with other work behind the scenes, kerning, diacritics and up/down-casing show problems if Greek letters are used without explicit change of the font encoding.

These problems can be avoided by use of emph{babel} and the correct language setting (greek), an explicit font encoding switch (e.g. wrapping the Greek text in verb|ensuregreek|% footnote{The texttt{textbackslash ensuregreek} macro ensures the argument

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is set in a font encoding supporting Greek. % This can be used to fix these % problems without adverse side-effects if the active font encoding is % already LGR or Unicode. },

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or XeTeX/LuaTeX with Unicode fonts.

subsection{Diacritics}

Composition of diacritics (like verb|accdasiaacctonos| or verb|<’|) fails in other font encodings. Long names (like \verb|accdasiaoxia|) work.

With LGR, pre-composed glyphs are chosen if available. In other font encodings, accent macros do not select pre-composed characters. (The difference is a sub-optimal placement of the accent and becomes obvious if you drag-and-drop text from the PDF version of this document.):

begin{quote}

ensuregreek{<’a accdasiaacctonos a accdasiaoxia a accdasiaoxiatextalpha} (LGR) vs. accdasiaoxiatextalpha{} (T1).

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end{quote}

According to Greek typographical tradition, diacritics (except the dialytika) are placed before capital letters in Titlecase and dropped in UPPERCASE: % begin{quote}

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ensuregreek{%

<{textalpha} >{textepsilon} “’{textiota} `>texteta{} ‘<{textomicron} ~<{textupsilon} ~>{textomega} quad <{textAlpha} >{textEpsilon} “{textIota} `>textEta{} ‘<{textOmicron} ~<{textUpsilon} ~>{textOmega} quad MakeUppercase{%

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<{textalpha} >{textepsilon} “’{textiota} `>texteta{} ‘<{textomicron} ~<{textupsilon} ~>{textomega}

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}

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}

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end{quote} % This fails for accent macros if the active font encoding is not LGR or Unicode. Pre-composed literal Unicode characters are handled correctly: begin{quote}

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ensuregreek{‘textAlpha/Ά} (LICR/Unicode in LGR) vs. ‘textAlpha/Ά (LICR/Unicode in T1).

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end{quote}

The dialytika marks a emph{hiatus} (break-up of a diphthong). It must be present in UPPERCASE even where it is redundant in lowercase (the hiatus can also be marked by an accent on the first character of a diphthong). The auto-hiatus feature works in LGR and Unicode font encodings only: begin{quote}

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acctonostextalphatextupsilon{}, acctonostextepsilontextiota{} $mapsto$ MakeUppercase{ensuregreek{

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acctonostextalphatextupsilon{}, acctonostextepsilontextiota{}

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}} (LGR) vs. MakeUppercase{

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acctonostextalphatextupsilon{}, acctonostextepsilontextiota{}%

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} (T1)

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end{quote}

Currently, the second vowel of the diphthong must be given as macro, not Unicode literal if the auto-hiatus feature should work: begin{quote} ensuregreek{ἀtextupsilon{}πνία} $mapsto$ ensuregreek{MakeUppercase{ensuregreek{ἀtextupsilon{}πνία}}} (LGR) vs. ensuregreek{MakeUppercase{ensuregreek{ἀυπνία}}} (T1). end{quote}

subsection{Kerning}

No kerning occurs between Greek characters in non-Greek text due to the internal font encoding switch: compare ensuregreek{textAlphatextUpsilontextAlpha} (LGR) to textAlphatextUpsilontextAlpha (T1).

Compiling with LuaTeX provides kerning also over font encoding boundaries.

section{Test and Examples}

subsection{Greek alphabet}

Greek letters via Latin transcription in LGR font encoding:

begin{quote}

ensuregreek{A B G D E Z H J I K L M N X O P R S T U F Q Y W}\ ensuregreek{a b g d e z h j i k l m n x o p r sv c t u f q y w}

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end{quote}

Greek letters via default macros in other font encoding (here T1):

begin{quote}

textAlpha{} textBeta{} textGamma{} textDelta{} textEpsilon{} textZeta{} textEta{} textTheta{} textIota{} textKappa{} textLambda{} textMu{} textNu{} textXi{} textOmicron{} textPi{} textRho{} textSigma{} textTau{} textUpsilon{} textPhi{} textChi{} textPsi{} textOmega{} \ textalpha{} textbeta{} textgamma{} textdelta{} textepsilon{} textzeta{} texteta{} texttheta{} textiota{} textkappa{} textlambda{} textmu{} textnu{} textxi{} textomicron{} textpi{} textrho{} textsigma{} textvarsigma{} texttau{} textupsilon{} textphi{} textchi{} textpsi{} textomega{}

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end{quote}

Archaic Greek letters and Greek punctuation

begin{quote}

textDigamma textanoteleia textQoppa textSampi textStigma textnumeralsigngreek texterotimatiko \ textdigamma textkoppa textqoppa textsampi textstigma textnumeralsignlowergreek textvarstigma

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end{quote}

Diacritics

begin{quote}

Symbol macros:% footnote{Composite diacritics require wrapping in texttt{textbackslash ensuregreek}.} “{} ‘{} `{} ~{} <{} >{} u{} ={} ensuregreek{“~{} “’{} “`{} <~{} <`{} <’{} >~{} >’{} >`{}}

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Named macros: accdialytika{} acctonos{} accvaria{} accperispomeni{} accdasia{} accpsili{} ypogegrammeni{} prosgegrammeni{} % accdialytikaperispomeni{} accdialytikatonos{} accdialytikavaria{} accdasiaperispomeni{} accdasiavaria{} accdasiaoxia{} accpsiliperispomeni{} accpsilioxia{} accpsilivaria{} % accinvertedbrevebelow{} % == textsubarch{} accbrevebelow{}

end{quote}

Accent macros can start with verb|a| instead of verb|| when the short form is redefined, e.,g. inside a emph{tabbing} environment. This also works for the new-defined Dasia and Psili shortcuts: begin{quote}

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begin{tabbing}

COL1quad = COL2quad = COL3quad = COL4quad \ COL1 > > COL3 \ Viele > Gra”uss e > greekscript a<textalpha{} > greekscript a>textomega

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end{tabbing}

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end{quote}

subsection{Greek Unicode characters in non-Greek text}

With the emph{textalpha} package, href{http://www.ctan.org/pkg/greek-inputenc}{greek-inputenc} and input encoding texttt{utf8}, Greek Unicode characters can be used in text with any font encoding. See Tables ref{tab:greek-and-coptic} and ref{tab:greek-extended}.

Kerning is preserved if the font encoding is LGR: ensuregreek{AΫA}

begin{table}[tbp] centerline{ begin{tabular}{rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr} toprule

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& 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7 & 8 & 9 & A & B & C & D & E & F\

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midrule 370 & * & * & * & * & ʹ & ͵ & * & * & & & ͺ & * & * & * & ; & \ 380 & & & & & ΄ & ΅ & Ά & · & Έ & Ή & Ί & & Ό & & Ύ & Ώ\ 390 & ΐ & Α & Β & Γ & Δ & Ε & Ζ & Η & Θ & Ι & Κ & Λ & Μ & Ν & Ξ & Ο\ 3A0 & Π & Ρ & & Σ & Τ & Υ & Φ & Χ & Ψ & Ω & Ϊ & Ϋ & ά & έ & ή & ί\ 3B0 & ΰ & α & β & γ & δ & ε & ζ & η & θ & ι & κ & λ & μ & ν & ξ & ο\ 3C0 & π & ρ & ς & σ & τ & υ & φ & χ & ψ & ω & ϊ & ϋ & ό & ύ & ώ & \ 3D0 & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & Ϙ & ϙ & Ϛ & ϛ & Ϝ & ϝ & * & ϟ\ 3E0 & Ϡ & ϡ & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & *\ 3F0 & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & * & *\ bottomrule end{tabular} } % end centerline caption{Greek and Coptic Unicode Block, input as literal Unicode

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characters in T1 font encoding (legend: * glyph missing in LGR).}

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label{tab:greek-and-coptic} end{table}

begin{table}[tbp] centerline{ begin{tabular}{rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr} toprule

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& 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7 & 8 & 9 & A & B & C & D & E & F\

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midrule 1F00 & ἀ & ἁ & ἂ & ἃ & ἄ & ἅ & ἆ & ἇ & Ἀ & Ἁ & Ἂ & Ἃ & Ἄ & Ἅ & Ἆ & Ἇ\ 1F10 & ἐ & ἑ & ἒ & ἓ & ἔ & ἕ & & & Ἐ & Ἑ & Ἒ & Ἓ & Ἔ & Ἕ & & \ 1F20 & ἠ & ἡ & ἢ & ἣ & ἤ & ἥ & ἦ & ἧ & Ἠ & Ἡ & Ἢ & Ἣ & Ἤ & Ἥ & Ἦ & Ἧ\ 1F30 & ἰ & ἱ & ἲ & ἳ & ἴ & ἵ & ἶ & ἷ & Ἰ & Ἱ & Ἲ & Ἳ & Ἴ & Ἵ & Ἶ & Ἷ\ 1F40 & ὀ & ὁ & ὂ & ὃ & ὄ & ὅ & & & Ὀ & Ὁ & Ὂ & Ὃ & Ὄ & Ὅ & & \ 1F50 & ὐ & ὑ & ὒ & ὓ & ὔ & ὕ & ὖ & ὗ & & Ὑ & & Ὓ & & Ὕ & & Ὗ\ 1F60 & ὠ & ὡ & ὢ & ὣ & ὤ & ὥ & ὦ & ὧ & Ὠ & Ὡ & Ὢ & Ὣ & Ὤ & Ὥ & Ὦ & Ὧ\ 1F70 & ὰ & ά & ὲ & έ & ὴ & ή & ὶ & ί & ὸ & ό & ὺ & ύ & ὼ & ώ & & \ 1F80 & ᾀ & ᾁ & ᾂ & ᾃ & ᾄ & ᾅ & ᾆ & ᾇ & ᾈ & ᾉ & ᾊ & ᾋ & ᾌ & ᾍ & ᾎ & ᾏ\ 1F90 & ᾐ & ᾑ & ᾒ & ᾓ & ᾔ & ᾕ & ᾖ & ᾗ & ᾘ & ᾙ & ᾚ & ᾛ & ᾜ & ᾝ & ᾞ & ᾟ\ 1FA0 & ᾠ & ᾡ & ᾢ & ᾣ & ᾤ & ᾥ & ᾦ & ᾧ & ᾨ & ᾩ & ᾪ & ᾫ & ᾬ & ᾭ & ᾮ & ᾯ\ 1FB0 & ᾰ & ᾱ & ᾲ & ᾳ & ᾴ & & ᾶ & ᾷ & Ᾰ & Ᾱ & Ὰ & Ά & ᾼ & ᾽ & ι & ᾿\ 1FC0 & ῀ & ῁ & ῂ & ῃ & ῄ & & ῆ & ῇ & Ὲ & Έ & Ὴ & Ή & ῌ & ῍ & ῎ & ῏\ 1FD0 & ῐ & ῑ & ῒ & ΐ & & & ῖ & ῗ & Ῐ & Ῑ & Ὶ & Ί & & ῝ & ῞ & ῟\ 1FE0 & ῠ & ῡ & ῢ & ΰ & ῤ & ῥ & ῦ & ῧ & Ῠ & Ῡ & Ὺ & Ύ & Ῥ & ῭ & ΅ & `\ 1FF0 & & & ῲ & ῳ & ῴ & & ῶ & ῷ & Ὸ & Ό & Ὼ & Ώ & ῼ & ´ & ῾ & \ bottomrule end{tabular} } % end centerline caption{Greek Extended Unicode Block, input as literal Unicode characters in T1 font encoding.} label{tab:greek-extended} end{table}

Combined Diacritics work ᾅ, diacritics (except diaeresis) are dropped with MakeUppercase (μαΐστρος $mapsto$ MakeUppercase{μαΐστρος}).

subsection{PDF strings}

With emph{textalpha} and emph{href{http://www.ctan.org/pkg/greek-inputenc}{greek-inputenc}}, there are two options to get Greek letters in PDF strings: LICR macros and literal Unicode input.

subsubsection{textlambdatextomicrontextgammatextomicrontextvarsigma{},

λογος and ensuregreek{logos}}

The subsection title above uses: LICR macros, Unicode input and the LGR transcription for the Greek word ensuregreek{logos}. Check the table of contents in the PDF viewer: LICR macros and Unicode literals work fine, the Latin transcription remains Latin in the PDF metadata.

end{document}

Docutils System Messages

System Message: ERROR/3 (/home/milde/Code/sf-home/userweb/htdocs/greek/greek-fontenc/textalpha-doc.tex, line 156); backlink

Undefined substitution referenced: ") fails in other font encodings. Long names (like verb".